The graph at the top of the chart has been suitably scaled, and the following lines drawn on it:
Similarly, the scale, together with the lines for UCLR, LCLR and the mean of the R values () are shown on the R graph.
The position of each of these lines has been calculated from previously recorded data, in order to:
The chart footings, below the recording boxes, are used for calculating control limits. Because those calculations are beyond the scope of this course, you can simply ignore that section.